Famous People   -   the Jaff Leaders
Zaher Beg Jaff

Zaher Beg bin Yar Ahmed Beg was born in 1114h. A man of courage, capable, and known for his determination and firmness in taking decisions. He gathered the armed members of his tribe and controlled Sheherzoor province; and during that period he was asked by Bakr Beg Baban, the ruler of the Baban Emirate in Sulaimania in 1130h. to rid the area of the road thugs, and were ever increasing in number, and became a serious burden on the inhabitants. He answered the call and launched an attack on the thugs, killed many and arrested others; in return the ruler allocated to him a province which included Bani Khelan,Dizyash, Halabcha, and Sheharzoor. He formed a strong army and encouraged the people to work in agriculture and cattle-breeding. After some time Sibhan Werdi Khan, the Amir of the Ardalan Emirate attacked Jwan Rood province which belonged to the Jaff tribe, looting and killing many members of Jaff. Upon hearing the news, Zaher Beg decided to attack Sibhan Werdi Khan then a bloody battle took place in 1155h. where Zaher Beg Jaff was killed. After that his brother immigrated to Syria, where he was welcomed by the Ottoman Sultan.

Sulaiman Beg bin Zaher Beg Jaff was appointed ruler of province Bani Khelan, Dizyash, Sheherzoor, andHalabcha by Saleem Pasha Baban. He unified all the Jaff clans and established an organized army, built bridges lodges for travelers on main roads, and people began a period of stability and peace until his death in 1120h. and left two sons Qader Beg and Kai Khesro Beg.

Sulaiman Beg Jaff

Kai Khesro Beg Jaff became ruler according to his father’s wil in 1220h, on the Administration of Halabcha and sheherzoor. He was a brave person, strong willed, and in control of his affaires. The well known British orientist Mr. Rich met with him in 1240h. (1820) when he visited Sheherzoor area and wrote a book on his travel in the Middle East, acclaiming Kai Khesro Beg, his influence, and the strong, well equipped army which exceeded 4000 of armed men. He was a confidant of Fateh Ali Khan Qajar the Shah of Iran. He died in 1244h and buried in Saed Sadiq area in Shaherzoor; left four sons: Qadir Beg, Sulaiman Beg, Abdulla Beg, and Mohamed Pasha.

Kai Khesro Beg Jaff

Mohamed Pasha Jaff

Mohamed Pasha Jaff was born in 1714. Brave and intelligent, he managed to unite the Jaff clans, making them a formidable force. He submitted to nither The Iranian or The Ottoman states (AlIraq Alhadeeth, from 1900-1950, Salim Taha AlTikriti,p. 54), which both were apprehensive of his increasing influence among his tribe, awaiting the opportunity to annihilate him thru the rulers of the two emirates or other enemies of Jaff tribe. As outlined in the memoirs of Karim Beg Jaff, Ahmed Pasha Baban and Mohamed Pasha Jaff did not see eye to eye, and conflict between them began and later exasperated because of his uncle Ahmed Beg bin Walad Beg, whereby Mohamed Pasha Jaff deserted Sheherzoor province, seeking sanctuary with the Princes of Ardilan in Iran. Then Mohamed Pasha became uncomfortable with behavior of the Princes which forced him to return to the Ottoman lands to settle in the Khanaqeen Province and Qizel Rabat with his tribe. Later, he contacted the ruler of Baghdad seeking assistance, who welcomed him on arrival and provided all possible assistance. Then Ahmed Pasha learnt of these lose ties and decided to revert to settle the disputes, and indeed peace was restored between them after three years whereby Mohamed Pasha returned to The Shehrzoor Province again and remain in the area till the end of the Babanian Emirate in 1951. After the fall of the Babanian Emirate, Jaff tribe emerged as a developing force or replacement of the Emirate, after being its military backbone. In this regard, Abdul Aziz Sulaiman Noor states that Jaff created many problems and troubles to the Ottoman State (Tareekh AlIraq Alhadeeth from the end of the rule of Dawood Pasha to the end of Midhat Pasha rule – Cairo 1968- p. 70), and forced it bestow the title Pasha on Mohamed Pasha. But it seemed that the title influence Mohamed Pasha who was not, as we stated before, to be subdued by either power. The citadel which he built in the Sherwanah province stands till now as a simble to his defiant spirit, and proof of his aspirations to freedom and independence from the influence of both powers.

It must be stated that this tendency was not a strange phenomenon which was a common among the leaders of the Kurdish tribes in every part of Kurdistan. This tendency was empowered, weather in the form of emirate or a tribal regime in some parts of Kurdistan, as a result of the oppression practiced by the rulers of The Iranian and Ottoman States towards the Kurdish people (The Iraqi Scientific Institute periodical, ed. 20, 1989). The on going revolutions and political movements, which demand Kurdish national rights are, but extensions of old aspirations. Hence it was not strange that The Ottoman State viewed with suspicion the emergence of Mohamed Pasha, and awaiting the right moment to exterminate him. Omar Pasha tried to pressurize Mohamed Pasha Jaff to settle his tribe in the Sheherzoor area, which he declined because he saw in this an attempt to eradicate their influence and independence (Memoirs of Hasan Fahmi Jaff). Omar Pasha insisted on his demand, and forced Mohame Pasha to abandon Shehrzoor and seek refuge in Iran followed by all Jaff clans. He chose his summer residence in Jwanro, while Zahab was the winter refuge. The guardians of the Iranian State welcomed the arrival of Mohamed Pasha Jaff , and the Naser Edin Shah Alqajeri bestowed on him the title of Khan, while appointing him the ruler of Zahab Emirate (1291 Hijri) together with all the Iranian border areas with The Ottoman State (Mashaheer Al Akrad, ed.2 p.258), also appointing his son Othman Beg ruler of Jwanro. The declaration (firman) of the appointment is still kept with Jaff family till now.

Shirwanah Castle

Mohamed Pasha remained in Iran for three years whereby that period the influence of the Jaff tribe enlarged significantly, and began irritating The Ottoman State depriving the area of security and peace. This Ottomans tried unsuccessfully to eliminate the tribe, which led them to revert to diplomatic means in order to contain the danger, by requesting through their embassador in Tehran, to hand him over, which the Iranians rejected ( Bare Sehai Tarikhi, memoirs of Merza Melkem Khan, ed.1,1970).

The growing influence of Mohamed Pasha and his disregard to state laws, infuriated the Iranian rulers, leading to open differences between Mohamed Pasha and First Minister of the State Prince Ferhad Merza, the uncle of Naser Edin Shah AlQajeri, who was the Governor of Sinendg between 1284-1291 h., by demanding from Mahamed Pasha to settle the tribe, naturalize its members, and respect laws of the land, and to prohibit all acts of disturbances on the Iranian borders, otherwise he would forbid all the unsettled Jaff clans from entering the Iranian land from the Ottoman territories. When Mohamed Pasha rejected all these conditions, ferocious fighting erupted between The Iranian Army and Jaff tribe, resulting in defeat of the tribe. Ferhad Merza began pressurizing Mohamed Pasha Jaff, and arrested one of his confidants, Habib Khan the head of Babajanies, a clan of Jaff . Mohamed Pasha requested his release, but to no avail. The rugh treatment followed by the Iranian rulers made Mohamed Pasha to contact his friends in ruling circles of The Ottoman rulers, and Tahseen Pasha the Governor of Baghdad in particular, showing willingness to return to the custody of The Ottoman State. Mahmood Beg, Mohamed Pasha’s son, was sent to accompany him on his return to the Ottoman territories (Kurdistan). The ruler of Baghdad realized that it was in his interest to welcome back Mohamed Pasha, although the majority of other officials were distrusful of him, seeking an opportunity to eliminate him. To make him feel assured at the beginning, he was appointed Deputy Mayor of Sulaimania, most probably in 1294h., during the Mayorship of Ibahim Pasha and Thabit Pasha (History of Sulaimania and Surroundings,p.183). Then he was moved to become Chief Officer (Qaem’maqam) of Halabcha. During Mohamed Pasha’s stay in Iran, The Ottoman State began to strengthen Aziz Shawees the Head of the one of Jaff clans, the Karamwaisi, the Shateri branch, whom did not follow Mohamed Pasha when he left Iraqi Kurdistan. This attitude by the Ottomans was designed to maintain a balance of power; but upon Mohamed Pasha’s arrival in Halabcha, his adversaries in the official circles of The Ottoman State and their agents began enticing members of the Karamwaisi clan against him, and making obstacles in the administration of the city, which forced him to arrest and imprison Aziz Shawais in Halabcha, where he later died in prison of pneumonia. Mohamed Pasha’s enemies wasted no time in benefiting from this opportunity by spreading rumors that Mohamed Pasha poisoned Aziz Shawais in prison, which infuriated members of the clan and decided to avenge him, when they did manage to kill Mohamed Pasha in 1299h., while on a hunting trip near Chimen Ibrahim Semin in the Kofri province. His mercenary killers took refuge and under the protection of the leader of the Hamawand, the well known tribe for its courage and pride, who also had their differences with Mohamed Pasha Jaff, caused by his killing of Khola Piza, one of the leaders of that tribe. Therefore it was hardly surprising when when Jwameer Hamawend did not hesitate to come to the rescue of Mohamed Pasha’s killers. Consequently Jaff tribe launched a violent campaign under the leadership of Mahmood Pasha Jaff against the Hamawand and the Karamwaisi tribes to avenge the killing of its leader.

Document: Rule of Zahab Emarate- 1291 Hj

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After vicious battles the Hamawands were defeated, while the Karamwaisi were annihilated to the last person. Afterward Jwameer Hamawand fled to Iran and remained there till his death. After the signing of the secnd Arz room treaty in 1847, we found the Iranians and the Ottomans join forces politically to destroy all the Kurdish movements (Arabs and Kurds- Monther AlMoselly-p.192), by gathering tribes’ leaders, Sheikhs, and religious leaders around them, granting them salaries and lands to disaffiliate them from revolutions and rebellion . This Ottoman policy was strongly consolidated during the rule of Medhat Pasha in Baghdad in 1869 when he put a complete end to all independence tendencies of the Iraqi provinces, achieving a unified administration, and distributed land and estates to heads of tribes, shkiekhs, aghast (aghwat). This Policy, however, did not stop the continuous Kurdish revolts and rebellions. It is worth mentioning that the political conditions of the Ottoman State was deteriorating, giving rise to political parties and social organizations opposing the existing authorities and aspiring to overthrow Sultan Abdul Hameed. The most prominent of these parties was( Party)Hizb al Itihad W Al Taraqi which had under its wings most of the intellectual elites of ethnicities which comprised The Ottoman Empire. Mohmood Pasha Jaff, who became the leader of the big Jaff tribe at that time, was among those who joined the party

Jaff & Hamawand campaign in chamchamal near Karkuk city

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Mahmod Pasha Jaff

Mohmood Pasha Jaff was born in 1262h and became leader of Jaff tribe after the death of his father in 1308h, with no interference by one state or the other. It seemed that he was qualified to play prominent role in the working of future maturing the Kurdish national consciousness, which its elements began appearing during the reign of Sultan Abdul Hameed. His influence and capability were indeed pointed out by Basil Nekitin that Mahmood Pasha had both the capacity and capability to assemble, within hours, four thousand fighters of his tribe ( Basil Nekitin : The Kurds p.167-169); Also what Merza Mohmood Khan mentioned in his memoirs ( Tareekh Mardokh,ed.2,p.230)that Mahmood Pasha was the head of five thousand armed family, and was subjected to neither the Ottoman or the Qajari authorities; and in what Haj Tawfeeq Peereh Mird description of his gallant, which made the ruler of Kirmanshah fuel and wood to Sherwana fortress and Kani Chaqal, where his quarters was (Zayan newspaper ed. 499, 1936). Both the Ottoman and the Iranian States were constantly cultivating the friendliness of Jaff tribe ( Al Akrad, Shakir Alkhasbaak, p.37) giving the strategic importance of this area. In this regard, Mahmood Pasha was in centre of that strategy, hence it was not strange that the title Khan was given to him by the Iranian state, and pasha by the Ottomans.

Mahmood Pasha was intelligent enough, and politically aware, not to be fooled by pomp titles and offered prominent positions, as he aspired to make his region self- supporting.According to the acclaimed Kurdish historian Mohamed Ameen Zeki Beg, Mohamod Pasha Jaff was accused of nationalistic tendency which, and therefore made the Ottoman state suspicious of his intentions. Events proved Mahmood Pasha’s wariness and made the Jaff tribe under his leadership stand against the formation of AlHamedia Cavalries which created a state of anarchy and disturbance on the Iranian - Turkish border and worried both states for some time in addition to the continuous and mutual distrust between Mahmood Pasha and the Ottoman State ( Kesha E Kord, M. Lazaref, translated by D. Caws Qe Fetan, p. 118, 1989). The Ottoman Government was wary of Mahmood Pasha’s influence in Kurdistan, and his adversaries who were unhesitant in sending reports, increasing the annoyance ever more of the government, seeking a suitable opportunity to removed from his position in Halabcha as well as the leadership of the tribe and to exprl him from the area. To achieve this goal, Commander Namiq Pasha was was commissioned by the Ottoman Government to proceed to Kurdistan to verify the reports. Mahmood Pasha received Namiq Pasha in cool manner, which infuriated and angered the latter of such dryness and lack of proper hospitality, and immediately turned away and went to Othman Pasha Aljaf’s house where he was met graciously and generous hospitality. Upon his return to Istambol, Namiq Pasha compiled a vicious report on Mahmood Pasha accusing him of equating himself with Sultan Abdul Hameed, bearing bad intentions, and cooperating with the Sultan’s enemies, being anti security and stability, utelising his reception quarters as a center for all the Kurds enemies of the Sultan.

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As a result to this report, a declaration (firman) was issued in 1888-1889 by the Sultan appointing Othman Pasha Jaff first officer (qaiem’maqam) of Halabcha and leader of Jaff tribe. To distance Mahmood Pasha from the area, another firman was issued appointing him Governor of Orfa ( Famous Kurds and Kurdistan, book 2, p.81) and bestowed on him the title of Beegler Beg, a title usually given to rulers of Admistrations ( Arabs and Kurds, Munther AlMoselli, p. 195), at a time when there were only four of them in Iraq at that time, namely Ahmed Pasha Baban, Abdul Qader Pasha AlDiarbekri, Mahmood Pasha Jaff, and Ibrahim Pasha who was in charge of Awquaf lands.( Awquaf is land belonging to the state.) Mahmood Pasha Jaff declined this offer and for a long period refused to join the post. He aligned himself with Shaikh Abdulla AlNahri in the uprising of 1880. News of his activities reached the Ottoman Government, which had great fears of them. Sultan Abdul Hameed took personal charge of the affaire and determined to eleminate him by any means, to put an end to his rebellion. After their occupation of Iraq, the British adopted the policy of enticing tribes’ leaders of Iraq, and was made very clear in Kurdistan. The following incident is a clear interpretation to this policy when Major Noel, the Political Governor in Sulaimania went to visit Mahmood Pasha Jaff in Zalem to ask for his help for the British forces. When Mahmood Pasha learnt of this, he refrained from greeting him, put his Ottoman Pasha uniform on, and remained in his tent waiting for the Major to arrive. When the Major saw him in that uniform, he gave him the military salute, refrained from sitting until was asked by the Pasha to do so. The following conversation took place: “ Does Mahmood Pasha knows the purpose of this visit?” “ I have no knowledge of that, and wish to hear directly from you”, replied Mahmood Pasha. Major Noel: “ The British Government intends to serve Kurdistan, bring pleasure to the Kurdish people, and save it from the cruelties of the Ottomans. The British Government wishes from prominent people and leaders like yourself to give your backing and help this endeavour . What is your reply?” Mahmood Pasha replied : “ My answer is complete rejection, for the following reasons : - To start with, I have no strong belief in your intentions towards the Kurdish people, if your goals to serve the Kurds and save them from cruelties as you claim, rest assured, that even if I am not with you, there will be hundreds like me who will be willing to help you, and your efforts will undoubtedly be successful. The second reason being a Muslim, my religion forbids me from cooperating with you against my brothers in religion. - The third reason is my old age, disability and incapability from taking actions.” After this encounter, the British began to exert pressure on Mahmood Pasha, moving to make him powerless, and imposing heavy taxes on his people. He could not face up to such conditions or take any action against them, because of dominance over the political situation in Iraqi Kurdistan, and his old age. He died in 1921 and buried in his mosque in Saedeia town.

Mahmood Pasha Jaff on his way from Istanbul to Kurdistan of Iraq, disquised as a homeless person.

Kareem Beg Fattah Beg Mohamed Pasha Jaff

Obtained the leadershipof Jaff after his nephew the late Mahmood Pasha , Kareem Beg ben Fattah Beg ben Mohamed Pasha Jaff, born in 1885 in Gerdeban village in Kani Che Qel. Studied religious science in Sulaimaneia, supervised by his uncle Abdul Rahman Agha ben Abdulla Agha. After his father’s death in 1908 he took the responsibility of leading the tribe and his own financial affaires. He resided in Sherwana castle (the castle built by his grandfather Mohamed Pasha Jaff). In 1919 Kareem Beg became officially the Master Leader of the all Jaff clans, of which he was highly capable in doing (Galaweez periodical #10, July 1949).

Kareem Beg Jaff was a generous by nature, amiable, a humbled hospitality, sharp intelligence, and peaceful, extensive knowledge of tribes’ origins, his own in particular. During the British occupation of Iraq he tried to improve the status of his tribe, clearly outlined by Major Edmonds in his book (Kurds, Turks, Arabs), by the analyses of the personality of Kareem Beg and his role in the events of Iraq Kurdistan during that epic; as a result the political developments in Iraq Kurdistan, the rise of the Kurdish nationalistic movement in Southern Kurdistan (Iraq) in Particular, the British retreat on their promises to grant the Kurds their aspired full national rights within an independent governorship (hokimdareia).

Major Edmonds with Kareem beg

As a consequence to this policy, the Kurdish people launched a revolt under the leadership of Sheikh Mahmood Hafeed Zade against British rule. Both the British and the Iraqi Government of 1929, entered into bitter struggle with Sheikh Mahmood, increasing by the day. Jaff joined the fight in the full strength of most of its clans, of Sheikh Mahmood Hafeed Zade’s against the British; and in particular Khalifa Younis one of the leaders of the Roghzendi Jaff, Mohamed Ali Rostum from Mekaeli Jaff clan, and Mahmood Shater, from Shateri Jaff clan (see: Ahmed Khawaja, Cheem Dee; book3, p.13). This alliance between Jaff clans and Shiekh Mahmood was amplified during the time of Kareem Beg Jaff when he and his brother, Dawood Pasha Jaff, and Mohamed Amin Beg, the son of kareem Beg, in the renowned battle of Aw Bareek in 1931. Kareem Beg and Dawood Beg continued their revolt until Shiekh Mahmood Hafeed Zade surrendered to the authorities.

Kareem Beg passed away in Ramadan of 1949 in the town of Kifri and buried in the Jaff cemetery in Said Khalil, near Kalar. Some of his well-known sons are Mohamed Amin Beg, Mustafa Beg, Ali Beg, Fattah Beg, and Dr. Hasan Beg Jaff.

Dawood Beg Fattah Beg ben Mohamed Pasha, 1905-1966 Leader of Jaff Tribe

After the passing away of Kareem Beg the leader of Jaff tribe, his brother Dawood Beg who was the youngest son of Fattah Beg ben Mohamed Pasha Jaff, became the tribe’s leader. Born in 1905 in Mira Dee village near Derbindeekhan in Iraq Kurdistan, he had a charismatic personality, talkative, courageous in telling the truth regardless of the consequences; he believed in the Kurdish cause, always trying to bring the Kurdish political factions near to each other, assisting in solving their differences; he despised friction and hypocrisy believing they were the main causes of non advancement of the Kurdish people in its aspiration for self-determination and rights.

Dawood Beg was a true combative Kurd, and amongst the fighters with Sheikh Mahmood AlHafeed head of the Kurdish Government of Iraq Kurdistan, in the struggle for the independence against the British forces. During the battle of AwBareek, he showed such a unique bravery despite his young age, that Sheikh Mahmood named him the Lion of Kurdistan, when the British were defeated, suffering massive losses.

In 1940 Dawood Beg became a member of the Iraqi parliament representing Kirkuk, and served his constituents well. His stand was always in defense of the poor and the dispossessed of the people.

He remained an M.P. until 1958, when the 14 of July coup d’e. tat of Abdul Kareem Qassim took place, causing disturbances and instability, and also the strong hold of the Communist Party of Iraq on government, Dawood Pasha decided to temporarily leave Iraq until the situation stabilizes in Iraq. He was respectfully and graciously received by the Shahenshah of Iran, then he settled in Kirmenshah near where his tribe in Iran. At that time, the Kurdish movement in Iraq Kurdistan, which started in the area of Jaff, i.e. Derbendikhan, began to spread to most parts of Kurdistan under the leadership of the hero Mullah Mustafa Barzani. Dawood Beg was in constant touch and contacts with movement, assisting as much as he could. Mullah Mustafa asked him to contact the Shah and request help for the Kurdish movement, and mediate with the Government of Iran to establish good relationships between the two parties. During one the meeting Dawood Beg did put this request to the Shah, who replied that Barzani had communist tendencies, and cannot cooperate with him. Then Dawood Beg clarified several matters to the Shah and assured him to the contrary, and that Barzani is a nationalist and far from holding such views. Cooperation was enhanced after that meeting resulting in strengthening the power of the Kurdish movement and consequent dominance of the Kurdish area.

Political differences between the Kurdish leadership caused frictions and serious damage, whereby a large faction of the leadership split and forced to go to Iran, turned against Mullah Mustafa Barzani, and started gathering and organizing, wanting to present a strong and well-known person who can face up to Mullah Mustafa. Dawood Beg Jaff was their choice, and they found in him the suitable person for this role. In the meeting between the leadership represented by M/S Ibrahim Ahmed, Hilmi Ali Shareef, Omar Dababa, and others with Dawood Beg, comprehensive discussions and negotiations took place. Dawood Beg was not convinced of their views and opinions, because of the delicate circumstances of the Kurdish movement at that time, and tried to negotiate a compromise between the parties, seeking to unify them with the movement despite its weaknesses, and to postpone their ideological differences. Because of his illness, Dawood Beg Jaff moved from the city of Kermishah to the capital Tehran, but to no avail. Dawood Beg Jaff the leader of Jaff tribe passed away in 1966, and his corpse transported to the family cemetery in Said Khalil close to Kalar town in Iraq Kurdistan, and buried next to his great grandfather, Mohamed Pasha. His corpse was met with honours by the Iraqi Government and massively by members of the tribe. Dawood Beg had nine sons and four daughters.

Dawood Beg with Nori Saeed P.M. and Ahmad mokhtar Baban and Dhiae Jafar and saeed Qazaz and some ministeres of Iraq in the Parlemant

ID: Member of the Iraqi parliament

Dawood beg Jaff with King Faisal and Abdol ilah

Dawood Beg sons ( Shahriar . Saryas . Sarwat . Sarbast . Salar . Sardar . Dara . Sarchel . Nawzad )

Dawood Beg daughter ( سرگل – گلاويژ – تابان - خورشيده )

Dawood Beg Jaff With King Faial II

With some of Iraqi M.Ps ( 1956 )

With some of Iraqi & Jordanian M.Ps ( 1958 )

With his brothers ( 1938 )

With his son

Sardar Beg Jaff

Sardar Beg is the first son of Dawood Beg the leader of Jaff tribe. Born in 1937 in Kalar village; his mother is Lady Khawer, the daughter of Sheikh Mohamed Talabani, a grand son of Sheikh Abdul Rahman Talaban, head of the Talbany sect and founder of the Talbany Takeia in Kirkuk in Iraq; (a Takeia is a place of social gathering whereby religious teaching and practices are exercised.) Sardar Beg completed his elementary learning in Kalar village and Kifri town, then moved to Baghdad to continue his studies and learn Arabic in the Jaaferia School. He later traveled to Beirut for his further studies. From his early youth, Sardar Beg developed a strong and distinguished personality showing signs of prominence in future for the tribe and society. He was a faithful and constant companion of his father, acquiring rich knowledge, while his father preparing him for leadership. After returning from Beirut, he joined the military service and posted in the Mansooria military camp near the Town of Shehreban. H e also served in the 20th battalion under Abdul Kareem Qassim; during which he made many friends and acquaintances among the officers and leaders of the army, whom he always invited to visit Kalar village during the holidays for deer hunting, as this area was well known for its deer. After the 1958 coup d'e.tat, the Jaff family, and Dawood Pasha and his elder son Sardar Beg in particular, were highly respected by Abdul Kareem Qassim. But being surrounded by political parties and various groups of conflicting interests, created an unsettled and disturbed conditions in the country which made Dawood Beg take the decision of leaving Iraq, even for a short period of time.

He consulted with mature elder son Sardar Beg who agreed with his father’s opinion. Dawood Beg instructed his son to contact the Iranian Government and inform them of his intentions. The Shah of Iran happily agreed to their request. A plan was put whereby armed members of the tribe were stationed en-rout to safe guard their passage. Sardar Beg was driving the Land Rover vehicle that carried the father and his family. Unfortunately forces from the Iraqi militia in Khanaqeen learnt of the plan and attempted to stop the convoy from leaving; a battle ensued and several persons were killed from both sides, and a tragedy in the family was averted due to the bravery and skill of Sardar Beg. The convoy crossed the border successfully and safely. Dawood Beg made Kirminshah his place of residence near where the Jwanrood clan of Jaff tribe lives. Following an advice from the Royal Court, Sardar Beg was sent to study law at Tehran university. During study period, he made many friends, acquired a lot of experiences in the political and social fields, and especially the political situation in Iran Kurdistan.

Faili Club – Baghdad - 1958

With his friends – Tehran university - 1965

He acquainted himself with well known Kurdish figures like M/S Ali Qazi, the son of the late Qazi Mohamed the ex-president of the Republic of Iran Kurdistan, Salah Eddin Mohtadi the son of Haj Abdul Rahman Aaqa Elkhani Zade, Soware Elkhanee zade, the famous Kurdish poet, Hasan Baba Taheri, Mostafa Ishaqi, Mohamed Ameen Saraji,Ameer Qazi, Haq Andeesh, Abdulla Sanandaji, and other Kurdish politicians. These students were also busy educating new students about the national rights of the Kurds, encouraging them to work for their Kurdish party, and forming national political cells. Sardar Jaff cooperating with them, accompanying foreign journalists to Iraq Kurdistan endangering himself and his family to bring the Kurdish movement’s voice to the outside world. He continued this work and indeed succeeded when the expanding movement began to score victories in its struggle under the leadership of the hero Mullah Mostafa Barzani. Shortly after the dominance and control of the Kurdish Democratic Party over most of Iraq Kurdistan, serious differences developed between Mullah Mostafa on one side, and a faction of the leadership in the party, which split the party and forced the defectors led by Mr. Ibraheem Ahmed to flee to Iran, accompanied by large number of intellectuals, writers, and patriots including M/S Jalal Talibani, Hilmi Ali Shareef, Jameel Rozbiani, martyr Ali Askari, and Omar Mostafa, who was called Omar Dababa (Tank), and other Kurdish leaders. Their combat men were stationed in a refugee camp near the Iranian town of Hamadan, and the leaders in the capital Tehran. Friendship consolidated between Sardar Jaff and these individuals, and Mr. Jalal Talibani in particular, because of family connection, and they spent most of their time in library of the Law College at Tehran University. Mullah Mostafa Barzani exerted pressure on the Iranian government to expel this group from Iran. Savak (intelligence force of Iran) wanted to arrest and hand over the leaders to Mullah Mostafa, one of those wanted was Jalal Talibani, who discussed the matter with Sardar and asked for his help, who, despite the risk, he gladly agreed to do so. For that he traveled to Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, to obtain a passport for Jalal under a different name. Sardar’s cousin was at that time the ambassador of Iraq in Afghanistan, who after a lot pressure from Sardar, accepted. With that passport, Jalal Talibani managed to leave Iran and escape a certain death. Sardar Jaff graduated from the Law College, and proceeded to obtain Masters honours degree in Political Science. He was appointed a consultant in the Iranian National Oil Company, a position Sardar found not compatible with his ambitions. He then asked the Shah to appoint him in the Royal Court. During his service in the Royal Court, Iran celebrated the 2500 anniversary of royal rule in the country, where invitations were sent to al Kings and leaders of the world. Sardar Jaff was the host and accompanying the Arab Kings and leaders, a task he excelled in, and became a trustee of the Shah and the Royal Court minister.

He moved speedily up in the post to become the Head of the Royal Emblems Directorate in the Court, then head of the Royal Protocol Directorate of the Middle East. Shortly after that, he became First Political escort of the Shah, accompanying him on his visits to the Arab countries, and attending all official functions of the Royal Court.

Several times a week Sardar was alternating in accompanying the Shah, and a well-known personality for his qualities in the country. Beside his official posts, Sardar was involved in agricultural and industrial ventures, and with the help of his brothers established businesses in these fields that became among the best businesses in Iran, and were the livelihood of many workers and staff. An agreement was signed between the Iraqi and Iranian governments, which caused the collapse of the Kurdish movement, and once again this movement was the victim of international political bargaining and balance of power in the Middle East. Consequently, many of the Kurdish leaders and members of the Pesh Merga and their families took refuge in Iran, where they were settled in refugee camps in the areas of Sarpil Zahab, Rawansar, and others in Iran. The family of the late Mullah Mostafa Berzani and a number of the leaders of the collapsed movement were taken to Adhimeia Karj area near Tehran. Mr. Sardar Jaff and his brother paid numerous visits to the refugee camps in the scattered areas, and provided assistance and help. They requested from the Iranian government to facilitate decent living conditions for the refugees, and continued solving their problems with the government. The situation was becoming miserable because of the large number of refugees, aggravated by the attitude of disregard by the Iranian government. During those difficult circumstances, the two sons of Mullah Mostafa Barzani, M/S Idrees and Masood paid a visit to Sardar Jaff at his office in Wanak area, north of Tehran, to inform him that Mr. Barzani wishes to meet him. They went to his house in the Adhimeia Karj area. Mullah Mostafa asked Mr. Sardar Jaff to help settle around 200 Barzani families of his personal guards and their relations in his farms, as they suffered serious bad living conditions in the towns of Kashan and Yezd. Despite the refusal of the Iranian government for such arrangements, Sardar and Salar Jaff, who was a member of parliament, insisted on their demands. The government consented to the demand, and the families were moved to establishments belonging to Sardar Jaff and his brothers in Khoram Dare area to the north-west of Tehran, providing them with housing, work and decent living in their. Barzani also asked them to consider his sons as their own brothers. Sardar Beg Jaff always had, and still has highest regards to this noble family.

Upon the fall of the Shahanshahi regime and the consequent departure of the Shah from Iran, Sardar Jaff together with his family and members of the Jaff tribe who were in Iran, a struggle against the Mullahs; and after the elapse of few months of the corrupt clique acquiring rule, he managed to arm thousands of members of his tribe and other tribes who aligned with them, to form a formidable power against that bloody regime, which initiated its rule by shedding the blood of the Iranian citizens of all ethnic backgrounds. The forces of Sardar Jaff formed a huge barrier, barring control of the Mullahs rule in Iran, especially in the west of the country and the Kurdish areas, to the extent that Said Kharazi, the permanent representative of Iran at the United Nations then proclaimed in a session of the U.N. that Iraq is helping Sardar Jaff to stir disturbances in west of Iran by attacking military camps and Iranian cities bringing destruction, according to him. He demanded that the U.N. takes measures to force the Iraqi government to abandon and stop providing help to strengthen his movement in Iran Kurdistan. But Sardar Jaff’s movement continued its struggle and managed to dominate and control areas such as Eilam to Mariawan and Saqz town. The movement had a strong hand in events inTehran the capital, posing a strong danger to the regime and a starting point for its downfall.

It was then Mr. Shahpoor Bakhtiar, the previous prime minister of Iran the emerging opposition to the new regime, contacted Sardar Jaff and a group of nationalists and officers of the air force stationed in Shahrokhi near Hamadan city,which were also opposing the Mullahs,to agree a plan to overthrow the regime. He asked Sardar Jaff to intensify his military operations on the border and other areas where they had strong influence to distract the enemy’s forces and divert them to these areas to face Sardar’s forces, to enable the cooperating air units from attack the authorities centers in Tehran and other cities, and consequently toppling them. Indeed, Mr. Sardar Jaff responded positively to Shahpoor Bakhtiar’s and the free officers’ plan and attacked the Basij and Government forces for the consecutive 10 days, inflicting heavy losses on them, taking control of 15 border posts, launching new attacks on the cities of Gilan Gharb, Qasr Shereen, Sarpeel Zahab,Krand, Shah Abad Gharb, Pawa and surrounding towns, taking control and putting fear in new rulers of Iran.

Most unfortunately, the plan did not succeed as it was exposed by the rulers arresting large number of the freedom fighters, officers, and corporals, executing more than 250 of the pilots and officers. The regime of the Mullahs remained in power, while the dream of the free officers did not materialized to rid their nation of this evil clique who opened the door to the Iraq-Iran war and caused the destruction to both neighbouring countries. Agents of the Mullahs’ regime assassinated Shahpoor Bakhtiar later in Paris. Sardar Jaff’s movement continued the struggle for the rights of the Kurds and other Iranian ethnic groups until 1986, when changing international and regional took place, and also the Iraqi government attitude towards Iran changed. Then Mr. Sardar Jaff was forced to abandon the struggle, and his forces were disarmed and moved with their families to refugee camps in the Provinces of Ramadi, Hilla, while Mr. Sardar Jaff and his family were taken to reside in Baghdad. The Iraqi government then began its cooperation with Mujahdi Khalq against the Iranian region. He married Maryam Gazi the daughter of Gazi Mohammed the ex- President of the Republic of Iran Kurdistan , they have two daughter, Sayran & Soma and one son , David

Document : a trustee of the Shah and the Royal Court minister.

Document : First Political escort of the shah

Sardar Jaff with Mr. Masaood Barzani

Mr.Sardar Jaff with some Clan`s leader of Jaff tribe

Sardar Jaff the chief commander with part of his fighters

Mr. Sardar Jaff 's ( The Current Leader of Jaff Tribe ) visit to Kurdistan after falling Saddam Husain regim

Dawood Sardar Beg Jaff

The Young Current Leader of Jaff Tribe

Jaff Tribe

By Dr.Sarwat Jaff
jaffsarwat@yahoo.com jaff.sarwat@gmail.com